UPCOMING RIDES (Invite Yourself Along)


UPCOMING RIDES (Invite Yourself Along)
April 7: The Hell of Taiwan-Taichung to Kaohsiung Ride in honor of Paris-Roubaix.



KEY DATES IN TAIWAN HISTORY




  • ·      1544: Portuguese sailors en route to Japan record the sighting of “Ilha Formosa”—the Beautiful Island.

  • ·      1582: Portuguese shipwreck survivors spend ten weeks on Taiwan. The 300 survivors constructed a craft amid frequent raids by the aborigines and returned to Macao.

  • ·      1602: States of Holland award Dutch East Indies Trade Company (VOC) exclusive rights to conduct affairs on behalf of the government.

  • ·      1603: Chen Di observes a culture of slash-and-burn farmers and hunters on the Western Plain of Taiwan. Ming naval force arrives in Tayowan (near present-day Tainan) to eradicate Japanese pirates and violators of the maritime blockade imposed by the Ming.

  • ·      1609: Japanese trade expedition of Arima Harunobu arrives for a brief stay in Taiwan and loses many men to attack by Austronesian peoples.

  • ·      1616: A second Japanese trade expedition arrives led by Omura and meets a similar fate to the first expedition.

  • ·      1622: Dutch send Captain Reyerzoon to Macao to oust the Portuguese. In July, Dutch are forced to retreat to the Pescadore Islands (present-day Penghu).

  • ·      1623: Dutch reports show 1500 or less “Chinese” inhabitants on Taiwan involved in the deer trade. The report also mentions “Chinese” men living in the villages often bully the aborigines and threaten to cut off the salt trade.

  • ·      1624: August, Chinese fleet forces Dutch to abandon their small fortress in the Pescadores and offer Tayouan in exchange. Japanese ship sails from Tayowan with 18,000 deerskins, sparking Dutch plans for the deer market.

  • ·      1625: Dutch buy Sinkan from the neighboring Siraya people and establish what is now Tainan. Dutch attempt to impose duties on trade with Tayouan. Japanese refuse to pay.

  • ·      1626: In January delegates from southern villages arrive in Tayouan to submit to Dutch rule. Spanish arrive at Keelung (Jilong) in northern Taiwan and begin plans to erect Fort Santissima Trinidad on Palm Island (Peace Island).

  • ·      1627: May 4, Dutch Reverend Robertus Candidus arrives to begin evangelizing to the natives. 

  • ·      1628: Japanese kidnap Governor Pieter Nuyts. Spanish launch expedition into the Tamshui valley on Taiwan’s northeast tip and begin construction of Fort San Domingo. Japanese traders take Dutch Governor Peter Nuyts hostage, resulting in damaged trading relations between the VOC and Japan. Tokugawa Shogunate refuses a muddled attempt by Japanese sailors to incorporate Taiwan into the Shogunate’s realm. The Sincandian tribesman Dika is returned to Taiwan with gifts from the Shogunate, which are confiscated by the Dutch, sparking a period of instability and distrust in Tayowan.

  • ·      1629: Villagers from Mattow Village ambush and attack Dutch soldiers, sparking punitive measures by the Dutch. Spanish erect a settlement at Tamshui.

  • ·      1630: Dutch force makes first attempt to dislodge the Spanish from Keelung.

  • ·      1632: Spanish found school for aborigines in Tamshui. Dutch Fort Zeelandia is completed in Tayowan.

  • ·      1633: January 27, Father Vaez is beheaded by Senar tribesman. Chinese population is estimated at 700-800.

  • ·      1635: In August, 400 Dutch reinforcements arrive in Tayowan and are employed in a punitive campaign against the surrounding villages of Mattow, Soulang, Sinkan and Saccam.

  • ·      1636: February, Dutch preside over meeting of delegates from twenty-eight allied tribes from all over the western plain. The meeting is celebrated annually as “Landdag”. In March, the Spanish, led by Father Muro, seek peaceful settlement with Senar over the Vaez murder and lose 24 men in an ambush. The Senar kill Father Muro with an arrow shot through his heart. In June aboriginal villages around Tayouan begin converting to Christianity. Rev. Junius establishes school in Sinkan to teach aborigines romanized forms of their own languages. Deer licenses are first sold to Chinese entrepreneurs.

  • ·      1638: Spanish abandon Tamshui garrison and retreat to Keelung due to aboriginal pressure on their supply line.

  • ·      1639: Rev. Junius expresses fear that the deer are being over hunted.

  • ·      1640: 1,300 head of cattle are being raised on Taiwan.

  • ·      1641: Revs. Candidus and Junius help lead a pacification campaign against Favorlang villages on the central Taiwan plain.

  • ·      1642: August 24, Dutch and aborigines mount attack on Spanish positions in Keelung, leading Governor Gonzalo Portillo to quickly surrender his position.

  • ·      1643: Rev. Junius trains 50 native teachers to teach in six southwest core villages with a total of 600 children.

  • ·      1644: Manchu Qing Dynasty is established in Beijing, succeeding the Ming.

  • ·      1645: Dutch secure supply route from north to south. Deer licenses are replaced by competitive system of “tax farming”.

  • ·      1646: Admiral Shi Lang defects from the pro-Ming Cheng family of China’s southeast coast to the Qing, bringing extensive knowledge of maritime affairs.

  • ·      1650: Dutch census puts the number of taxpaying plains aborigines at 50,000. Peter Struys reports most of the plains aborigines are wearing Chinese style clothing. Dutch claim sovereignty over 300 villages. Chinese population 25,000, mostly males or mixed aboriginal males. Taiwan sugar production reaches 9,000 acres of cane.

  • ·      1652: Chinese seasonal farmers stage a revolt led by Kuo Huai-yi and are easily put down by a combined Dutch-Aboriginal force.

  • ·      1653: Dutch erect Fort Provintia in Saccam across the harbor from Ft. Zeelandia.

  • ·      1659: Cheng Cheng-gong (a.k.a. Koxinga) is repulsed by Manchus at Nanjing. Villages in coastal Fujian are ordered evacuated by the Qing to deny Cheng Cheng-gong the ability to re-supply. The evacuation of millions causes severe strife in China. Many large villages in Taiwan have schools and half of the populations can recite the catechism.

  • ·      1660: As the rumors of attack by Cheng Cheng-gong spread, Manchu Governor Coyet orders Chinese farmers evacuated from distant areas. Cheng Cheng-gong retains Amoy (present-day Xiamen) under Manchu attack.

  • ·      1661: April 30, Cheng Cheng-gong arrives off Tayouan with 25,000 men and quickly lay siege to the Dutch forts. The well at Fort Provintia runs dry leading to a surrender. Ta Du (Papora) plains aborigines in central Taiwan revolt against the Chengs. May 26, Cheng orders soldiers not necessary to siege on Zeelandia to begin planting rice to better sustain his forces on Taiwan. In September, Cheng defeats a Dutch naval attack. July 30, Dutch ships are spotted on the horizon, but depart without assisting their besieged comrades in Zeelandia.

  • ·      1662: January 25, Cheng Cheng-gong’s forces capture a strategic position over Fort Zeelandia. Fort Zeelandia remains in Dutch control until February 1, 1662.
  • ·      1663: June 23, Cheng Cheng-gong dies suddenly and is succeeded by his son. In November, Cheng family loses Amoy.

  • ·      1664: Papora tribes on the central plains revolt. In July, Dutch force is sent to occupy Keelung. In September, Admiral Shi Lang is ordered to command a combined armada of government and VOC ships against the Cheng naval forces.

  • ·      1665: Cheng armies organized on Taiwan as military-colonist farmers reaching 70,000 men are paid with rice and land. Chengs reach agreement with the British. The agreement allows for the British to use Tayowan ports in exchange for matchlock rifles. Second aboriginal revolt in Ta Du (near present-day Taichung) is crushed by the Chengs.

  • ·      1668: Dutch withdraw from Keelung.

  • ·      1669: Chengs send envoys to Southeast Asia to establish trade routes.

  • ·      1670: British East India Trading Company opens factory under Ellis Crispe. Papora in Shalu revolt and are defeated. The Touweilang and Pazeh of Anli revolt.

  • ·      1673: Three Feudatories crisis in China draws Qing forces from the Chinese coast, allowing the Chengs a foothold on the continent.

  • ·      1674: Cheng loyalists are enlisted to fight in China during the Three Feudatories period. Cheng moves administration to Amoy.

  • ·      1980: April, Amoy is lost by Cheng to the Manchus. Qing naval attack destroys Fort Santissima Trinidad to deprive the Chengs of its use.

  • ·      1681: Fujianese are forced to move inland to quell alliances with the Cheng family.

  • ·      1682: A fire levels Tayowan (Tainan) including grain stores, aggravating the grain shortage. Admiral Shi Lang regains control of Qing naval forces.

  • ·      1683: Cheng expedition for gold leads to the destruction of an aboriginal village on the east coast. Grain shortages cause aborigines to revolt against the Chengs. In July, a great naval battle led by Admiral Shih Lang routs the Cheng navy leading to a surrender. In September, the Chengs finally surrender to the Qing. In October Admiral Shih Lang lands on Taiwan and soon acquires large sections of land. Qing government orders all Chinese on Taiwan without wives or property to return to China, leaving 7,000 Cheng soldiers on Taiwan. The remnants of the Cheng armies are sent to remotely populated areas of China to discourage further revolt. November 27, the Kangxi Emperor declares that “Taiwan is no bigger than a ball of mud. We gain nothing by possessing it, and it would be no loss if we did not acquire it.”

  • ·      1684: April: Taiwan is made a prefecture of Fujian Province to prevent the island from falling into foreign hands again. Admiral Shih Lang cites sulfur as a strategic commodity to retain the island. A court ordered quarantine is placed on Taiwan’s transportation and communication.

  • ·      1686: Sheng Yuan (Scholar-Official) schools are opened to court local elite and quotas for degree holders are set.

  • ·      1688: Imperial report laments decline of Chinese on Taiwan to several thousand and cites this population decline for lack of revenue. The first draft Gazette of Taiwan is begun by Jiang Yuying.

  • ·      1696: Gao Gongqian publishes the first Taiwan Gazette.

  • ·      1697: Yu Yong-ho begins his travels from Tainan to Tamshui in search of sulfur, detailing his observations of aboriginal and Chinese life as he travels.

  • ·      1699: Aboriginal revolt over excessive corvee labor in the northwest sparks unrest in the north. After a combined force of southern aborigines failed to hold the central plain, the Anli tribe is enlisted to ambush the retreating rebels, which they successfully did and win a seat of power in central Taiwan. A Tamshui area chief sparks a revolt after refusing his daughter’s marriage to a Chinese. The Chinese groom flogs the chief, sparking a revolt. The revolt is put down when a Qing naval expedition lands in Tamshui and pays neighboring aborigines to capture and kill the instigators of the revolt.

  • ·      1704: First accounting is made of tribally owned land. Qing decree land agreements must have government permission before finalization.

  • ·      1709: Taipei’s first land patent is issued as a large permanent rent from Ketagalan tribe in the Taipei basin.

  • ·      1710: Central plains Pazeh Tribe of Anli numbers 3,300 people.

  • ·      1711: Tax holiday is declared on Taiwan. The rate of “secret crossers” from China into Taiwan increases.

  • ·      1715: Six tribes submit to the Qing. Anli tribe submits to the Qing becoming the regional power in central Taiwan. Chen Pin requests recognition of tribal land rights to ensure peace on the frontier.

  • ·      1716: Zhang Dajing, a Guangdong Hakka, gains the trust of the Anli people by giving them medicine and is allowed to take a number of wives from the tribe.

  • ·      1717: The first Chu Luo Gazetteer calls aboriginal head tax a primary source of revenue and lists aborigines as landholders. Qing court bans Chinese trading abroad. Schools are functioning in aboriginal districts.

  • ·      1720: Residents in the Tainan area were discouraged from renting to Hakka settlers for fear they were becoming too numerous.

  • ·      1721: Chu Yi-kui, a 33 year old duck breeder from Changchou prefecture in Fujian organizes a rebellion against the Qing government for the extensive taxes levied by Feng Shan magistrate Wang Chen in southern Taiwan. Chu uses his name as a rallying call to Ming loyalists, as it resembles the surname of the ruling house during the Ming Empire. April 19, Chu gathers 80 rebels to raid military outposts in search of weapons and is soon joined by Tu Chun-ying, another regional bandit leader. After an early victory by the government and enlisting aboriginal braves from several loyal villages, the rebels dispersed into and hide out in friendly villages near by. When an overconfident and over zealous commander promises large amounts of silver for each rebel captured or killed, the plains aborigines run riot through the countryside, torching villages and killing civilians. As panic spreads, the government loses several key battles and is forced into a tactical withdrawal. The defeats lead to a partial government retreat as the rebels (numbering in the tens of thousands) close in on Tainan. Tainan soon falls followed by Chu Lo (present-day Chiayi). Rivalry between the rebel leaders causes a rift that allows the Qing to regroup and attack with 12,000 soldiers and re-take the capital. The rebellion causes the Qing to rethink their policy on Taiwan.

  • ·      1722: Papora revolt leads Cheng commander Luo Guo-hsuan to destroy the village of Sha lu. Governor Man-pao orders a boundary line constructed running north to south delineating the non-tax paying aborigines from the Han and aborigines loyal to the Qing. The boundary of trenches and hills is meant to prohibit settlers from occupying land beyond the markers that may result in aboriginal violence.

  • ·      1723: Changhua county is established in central Taiwan. The Yongzheng Emperor ascends the throne. Tenure for reclaiming wasteland lowered to six years from ten.

  • ·      1724: An imperial decree sanctions Han renting from aborigine landholders.

  • ·      1727: Rice from Taiwan’s southern core is used in Fujian to relieve famine. Governor Kao Chi-kuo sought to clarify the boundary between Han and “Fan” (“Savage”) areas and also tighten regulations against trespassing.

  • ·      1729: Twelve settlers from Feng Shan are killed after crossing the Han/Fan boundary. Prefect Shen Chi-yuan argues good government would turn Han into good locals and Fan into good “Han” through cultural assimilation.

  • ·      1730: Government decrees that any Han who reclaims land beyond the border will be punished and sent back to China.

  • ·      1731: The restriction on family immigration is lifted for the first time. In December, excessive corvee, taxation, and anger over government employees casually sleeping with aborigine women leads to the Ta Chia revolt in central Taiwan. Braves from Ta Chia attack sub-prefect Chu at Sha lu, kill his entourage and set fire to the yamen building. As Chu flees south, many settlers are killed in the aboriginal advance toward Changhua. The Ta Chia (Taokas) tribe is joined by two tribes from the Anli (Pazeh) tribal group to defeat Qing troops defending the route to Changhua.

  • ·      1732: The Ta Chia revolt continues as troops are drawn from the south to assist in putting down the rebellion. The absence of military near Feng Shan sparks a minor rebellion of Chu Yi-kui supporters in the south. At the same time a regional official, Ni Hsiang-kai, has five grain transporters killed from the Papora tribes hoping to pass them off as rebels and collect a reward. The killings result in the Papora joining the rebel assault on Changhua. The Babuza tribes join the uprising and the revolt gathers 2,000 aborigine braves in a siege on Changhua city and the surrounding area. The Qing bring up several hundred Hakka braves and enlisted several Honya tribes with the loyal Anli tribe, which fight until a settlement can be reached, but not before much of the surrounding countryside has been devastated. The Anli tribes, led by Hakka interpreter Zhang Dajing, begin to rent small parcels of land to the six big families of the central port city of Lugang. The contract with Anli requires the Han farmers to build irrigation canals to be shared by both Han and aborigines.

  • ·      1733: Governor Hao reports Ta Chia, Niu Ma and Sha Lu have ownership of 30,000 mou of hunting grounds surrounding their villages. Large amounts of troops are added to Taiwan’s garrisons.

  • ·      1734: A final investigation fails to punish the tribes responsible for the uprising at risk of losing the peace. A-Shu village rents land to Han immigrants to combat food shortage. Taiwan intendant Chang Su-chang proposes instituting an aboriginal school system in the villages that results in the construction of 47 schools to teach the Confucian classics for preparation to compete in the civil service examinations.

  • ·      1735: Yongzheng Emperor dies.

  • ·      1736: A revolt of plains aborigines leads to investigation of tribal welfare on the plains.

  • ·      1737: Aboriginal Head tax is eliminated. Aborigine tribal tax is reduced by 80% to combat graft and maladministration after a series of revolts. The reforms mark an end to a period of pro-colonization policies and the beginning of a protectionist policy for aborigines. Han men are “officially” prohibited from marrying aboriginal women.

  • ·      1738: Qing administration bars reclamation of aboriginal land. Governor-General Hao Yu-Lin orders all lands cultivated without government sanction are to be returned to the aborigines.

  • ·      1739: Family immigration is banned as the influx of mostly male immigrants exasperates ethnic conflict on Taiwan.

  • ·      1740: Han quarantine is again enforced.

  • ·      1741: Hakka quota is raised in civil service examinations to placate marginalized Hakka.

  • ·      1744: A proposal for developing aboriginal lands is rejected for fear of inciting revolt or inviting bad elements from China to immigrate to Taiwan. An edict is promulgated prohibiting military acquisition of tribal lands. Taiwan Censor Hsiung Hsueh-peng proposes opening “Taiwan’s wastelands” for the sake of “poor commoners seeking a livelihood.”

  • ·      1746: Governor-General Ma Er-tai approves regulations preventing and punishing Han reclamation of aboriginal land.

  • ·      1748: Family immigration is again banned after short reprieve. A canal system is proposed to combat famine. A governor’s edict calls for canals to be built at landholder’s expense, with tenant labor and official management.

  • ·      1750: Aborigine boundary is re-drawn after court demands clarification. Many boundaries are marked with stone stela markers written in Chinese characters and Romanized aboriginal script detailing prohibitions for settlement. The famous decree called into precedent earlier decisions made in favor of aboriginal land rights with a clause stating, “where Han settlers and civilized aborigines have contested lands, sanction is to be given to court judgments already handed down, but after this let civilized aborigines cultivate the remaining aborigine land and do not allow Han to interfere. Violators should be punished.” The decree also re-asserts the government policy of aboriginal lands as a defensive strategy as well as a protective measure to safeguard aboriginal rights.

  • ·      1756: Memorial to Fujian cites 660,147 “mouths” in Taiwan.

  • ·      1758: Plains aborigines are ordered to conform to Han and Manchu customs. After reports of Han encroachment into tribal lands the government launches a large-scale investigation. Anli headman Tun Tzu adopts the “Pan” surname.

  • ·      1760: Fujian governor Wu Shigong points to the unfavorable sex ratio leading to immigrant men marrying aboriginal women and disrupting tribal life. Aborigine boundary is re-drawn due to encroachment by settlers and the frequency attack by highland “raw” aborigines.

  • ·      1761: Family immigration is again ceased.

  • ·      1763: Fang So Tribe in Feng Shan donates money to build a temple.

  • ·      1766: Governor General Su Chang calls for clarification of both civilized and “raw” aboriginal boundaries. A new office for aborigine-Han affairs is created.

  • ·      1767: Land reclaimed by Han is returned to aborigines and allowing them to collect taxes themselves as renters.

  • ·      1768: An uprising led by Huang Chiao near Tainan increases Qing resolve to enforce immigration restrictions. Of 76 aborigine villages in northern Taiwan, 45 are also the locations of Han villages. Han renting of aboriginal land is approved tax-free.

  • ·      1773: San Hsia lands in the north are opened to supply grain to aboriginal militias. Han and Fan split cost of irrigation canals in San Hsia.

  • ·      1781: A series of government impeachments begin due to malfeasance.

  • ·      1782: After more impeachments the Qing administration is at its least effective point as ethnic strife grows between settlers from Guangdong (mostly Hakka), Han from Chuangzhou and Changzhou, and aborigines. In August, armed conflict erupts in Changhua county between Changzhou and Chuangzhou natives. The conflict begins to sweep south and the government is forced to request troops from Fujian.

  • ·      1783: Lugang in central Taiwan is opened for cross strait trade. Office for aboriginal affairs expands its role to encompass coastal defense. Governor-General Furgun proposes a six point plan in wake of feuds and creates a more disciplined society. A Changzhou native secretly crosses to Taiwan intent on recruiting members for the anti-Qing “Heaven and Earth Society”, a secret brotherhood rooted in millenarian beliefs.

  • ·      1784: Hanchiang joins Amoy as the only other port to serve Taiwan.

  • ·      1785: The Emperor discontinues use of a visiting government censor and enlists the highest-ranking officials on Taiwan for the job.

  • ·      1786: Lin Shuang-wen rebellion breaks out. It becomes the most destructive rebellion in Taiwan’s history. Aborigines surprise and kill the Tamshui prefect on his way to northern Miaoli. After being exposed, members of the “Heaven and Earth Society” in Chu Lo (Chiayi) flee to take refuge with fellow member Lin Shuang-wen in central Ta li. In December, Lin’s group, threatened with military force, pre-empts the government and launches a rebellion. Chapters of the society from north to south all join in the rebellion. Because the bulk of the rebels are of Changzhou origin, the Qing government orders Chuanzhou and Hakka loyalists into action to suppress the rebellion.

  • ·      1787: January 16, Lin Shuang-wen’s rebels defeat government troops and take Changhua. Hakka troops in the north and the advance of Green Standard troops in the south cause the rebels to withdraw to central Taiwan. Lin Shuang-wen and an aboriginal interpreter, Tu Mei, are meanwhile recruiting “raw” aborigines to assist the rebellion. Large rewards are offered by the government to apprehend rebels and many “civilized” aborigines are recruited to put down the rebellion. Many of the aboriginal tribes of central Taiwan participate in putting down the rebellion and are later rewarded with audiences with the emperor. The Anli tribe is especially valuable to the government in coordinating a defense. The government also uses Anli braves to attack Tali. In the wake of the rebellion, the emperor suggests that if the rebels had not been allowed to have family on Taiwan they would not have revolted. Chingshui Temple is constructed in Taipei.

  • ·      1788: Fu Gang-an suggests developing aborigine military colonies. In March, Fu Gang-en is ordered to assess the feasibility of organizing a detachment of civilized aboriginal soldiers. Fu’s plan is to create colonies of 4,000 soldiers from 93 villages organized into 12 colonies. Lin Shuang-wen is captured and killed. Lin family lands are redistributed while some family members are exiled to Fujian.

  • ·      1790: Qing court no longer seeks to interfere with cross-strait crossings. In September, Aborigine military colonies are officially proposed.

  • ·      1792: Wuhumen is opened as a northern trade port to Taiwan.

  • ·      1804: Groups of aborigines from central and northern Taiwan immigrate to the northeastern I-lan plain.

  • ·      1811: Population of residents using Han taxation identities reaches 2 million. 70% of population resides in southern Taiwan.

  • ·      1812: Hamalan prefecture is established on the Ilan plain.

  • ·      1814: Han colonists enter Puli basin in mountainous central Taiwan.

  • ·      1817: Qing force Han out of Puli.
  • ·      1823: Migrations of aborigines from 30 villages to Puli begins. Most of the immigrants are only sub-groups.

  • ·      1831: Lo Yun, an official from Tamshui decrees the “Four Rules of Decorum” and the “Eight Forbiddens “ to co-opt local power brokers into maintaining social order ordering a Pao Jia (family registration) system of punishment for mutual responsibility.

  • ·      1832: Chang-ping rebellion breaks out over the government shipping rice from Chiayi during a particularly poor harvest.

  • ·      1833: “Jia lian jia” or family-linking policy is instituted to enforce social responsibility. Rebellion breaks out.

  • ·      1839: Han are prohibited by edict from encroachment on aboriginal territory.

  • ·      1840: Prefectural gazetteer cites over hunting as chief cause for the drastic decline of deer herds. 

  • ·      1853: Upon hearing of the Taiping Rebellion and subsequent capture of Nanjing, Feng Shan native Lin Mu organizes a four month uprising against weakened Qing troops.

  • ·      1854: Commodore Matthew Perry anchors his Black Ships at Keelung on his way to Japan with the hopes of annexing Taiwan for America or turning Taiwan into a joint platform for Sino-American trade development.

  • ·      1858: The Treaty of Tianjin opens Keelung and Tamshui to foreign trading vessels.

  • ·      1859: Lin Wen-chia of central Wu Feng is ordered to Fujian to help suppress the Taipings, bringing thousands of soldiers from central Taiwan.

  • ·      1860: Treaty of Peking opens Taiwan’s ports to foreign trade, further linking Taiwan to the world economy. Taiwan’s interior is opened for exploitation of minerals and camphor.

  • ·      1862: Tai Chao-chun rebellion breaks out following a government attempt to outlaw Heaven and Earth societies.

  • ·      1863: Lin Wen-chia is recognized for a number of victories and his Anli braves are recognized as instrumental in Qing victory against the Taipings.

  • ·      1861: Britain establishes a consular presence on Taiwan in Taiwanfu (Tainan).

  • ·      1864: John Dodd arrives in Taiwan to explore tea and camphor trade.

  • ·      1865: The Presbyterian Church of Taiwan is founded in Takow (Kaohsiung).

  • ·      1866: James Davidson arrives in Taiwan and describes the European population as a small British presence.

  • ·      1868: “Camphor War” results in eliminating local middle-men in the camphor trade.

  • ·      1871: In November, four Okinawan ships wreck near present day Che Cheng in Pingdong County. All 54 hands are killed by Mu Tan villagers.

  • ·      1872: On March 9, Rev. George Mackay establishes a Presbyterian mission in Tamshui, the first Christian to evangelize in the area since Dutch times.

  • ·      1874: Japanese troops land at Che Cheng in southern Taiwan to mount a punitive expedition against a branch of Paiwan aborigines under the auspices of retaliation for the murder of shipwrecked Okinawan sailors. In June, Special Imperial Commissioner Shen Bao-zhen is sent to Taiwan to assist the Qing in exerting sovereignty over Taiwan by mediating ethnic disputes, re-drawing the boundaries between un-taxed aborigines and settling the troublesome bands of landless males that roam the countryside. October 31, Qing and Japanese officials reach an agreement regarding reparations as the result of the attack on the Okinawan sailors.

  • ·      1875: Taiwan is divided into two prefectures, north and south. Qing concede the mountains to the “raw” aborigines. Obsolete restrictions on settlement are lifted. George Mackay describes Taipei basin as a “Gibraltar of Heathenism.” Governor Ting Jih-Chang begins a series of infrastructure projects including telegraph and rail lines.

  • ·      1881: In June, the Lin family from Ban Chiao (south of Taipei) signs a long term contract for tea cultivation in Tamshui.

  • ·      1883: November, Sino-French War begins.

  • ·      1884: August 5, French Admiral Lesbes orders bombardment of Keelung.

  • ·      Sino French War results in French blockade of Taiwan and shelling of Keelung. French offer Taiwan to Japan in exchange for assistance against  Qing.

  • ·      1885: Liu Ming-chuan is named by Qing court as the first governor of the newly-established Taiwan Province. An aggressive reformer with a military background, Liu is charged with instituting modernization projects and expanding Qing authority. Liu attempts to block foreign interference in Taiwan by levying heavy taxes on foreign businesses. As a result of French aggression, Taiwan and its surrounding 85 islets are governed as a province to strengthen Qing claims to Taiwan.

  • ·      1887: Taiwanfu is re-named Tainan. Taiwan is divided again, adding a central prefecture.

  • ·      1888: Armed uprising breaks out threatening Changhua.

  • ·      1891: Liu Ming-chuan is recalled and replaced by Shao You-lian. Shao suspends modernization projects due to foreign pressure on Qing government.

  • ·      1894: Shao You-lian is replaced by treasurer and lieutenant governor Tang Jing-song. In July, Japanese military invades Seoul, Korea under the auspices of maintaining court stability, sparking the Sino-Japanese War. In November, Hubei-Hunan Governor-General expresses to Senior Grand Secretary Li Hong-zhang that Taiwan must not be ceded to Japan.

  • ·      1895: March 23, March 30, temporary ceasefire excludes Taiwan. Japanese troops land on Peng-hu islands between China and Taiwan without resistance. April 17, Treaty of Shimonoseki signed at the conclusion of the first Sino-Japanese War by Li Hong-zhang ceding Taiwan, the Pescadore Islands, and parts of Korea to Japan. April 20, Taipei elite offer British consul full use of Taiwan’s valuable resources in exchange for protection against the coming Japanese. April 22, Yue troops and Huai troops imported from across the Taiwan Strait engage in battle, sparking chaos in Taipei. May 20, the Qing court expresses its willingness to cede Taiwan and recalls Tang back to Beijing. May 8, formal transfer of Taiwan to Japan takes place aboard a ship off the coast of Keelung, making Kabayama Sukenori the first Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan.

  • ·      May 25, the Republic of Taiwan is founded in response to imminent Japanese landing in the hope that the foreign community would not let an independent nation succumb to foreign aggression. May 29, 15,000 Japanese troops land at Aoti east of Keelung and encamp after encountering an hour and a half of Yue resistance. June 3, Keelung is taken by the Japanese before an organized defense can be pitched, resulting in renegade Yue soldiers breaking ranks and rioting in the streets. The citizens of Taipei and Keelung battle the Yue troops in defense of their homes and businesses. June 4, Taipei is in flames as Yue troops pillage the city while the treasury is looted. June 5, Tang Jing-song, President of the Republic of Taiwan evacuates the Taipei Yamen and left for China as Japanese troops were poised for an armed advance to the gates of Taipei. June 7, Koo Hsien-jung, a local gentry leader is selected to approach the Japanese command and invite the Japanese armies into Taipei to restore order and protect the citizenry from the marauding Yue soldiers. June 8, Japanese troops enter Taipei with help from a female Taipei resident Chen Fa who supplied a ladder to breach the gate. October 21, Tainan surrenders to the Japanese.

  • ·      1896: There are 2,546,000 people on Taiwan and 5,350 degree holders. Japanese Diet approves Law No. 63 which gives sweeping powers to the Taiwan Governor free of interference from the central government. June, Yunlin Massacre in southern Taiwan results from clashes between Japanese military and guerilla forces. 6,000 Taiwanese are killed.

  • ·      1897: May 8, end of grace period for citizens wishing to be repatriated to China and avoid becoming Japanese subjects. 6,300 people have taken advantage of the offer.

  • ·      1898: Taiwan is placed under the stewardship of Kodama Gentaro and Goto Shimpei. Goto issues orders to commence an island-wide land survey that lasts until 1903. Goto supervises simultaneous legal and economic surveys.

  • ·      1899: Taiwanese nationalist leader Lin Yung-fu makes a deal with the Japanese to surrender in exchange for clemency for his family members imprisoned during the rebellion. The first Farmers Association opens in San Hsia. The United States establishes a consular presence in Taihoku (Taipei).

  • ·      1900: Governor-General Kodama’s plan to invade Fujian fails to materialize. Sun Yat-sen is reported to have visited Taiwan.

  • ·      1901: In November, Taiwan is divided into 20 administrative districts (cho). Japanese survey reveals 152,044 opium smokers.

  • ·      1902: Major guerilla offensives cease against Japanese.

  • ·      1903: Hydroelectric generators bring power to Taipei.

  • ·      1904: Japanese Government starts buying land in effort at land reform and. Tenant farmers gain ownership of their tilled land. There are 180 Western trained doctors on Taiwan.

  • ·      1905: The first Japanese census is completed revealing 2,890,485 citizens registered as “Han Chinese.” Literacy rate is at 1%. Japan institutes civil household registry.

  • ·      1906: March 17, Meishan Earthquake strikes Chiayi measuring 7.1 magnitude, killing 1,258 people. Japanese build Taiwan’s transportation system, which would remain little changed until the 1960’s.

  • ·      1908: Kaohsiung harbor in the south is completed as a second deep port for Taiwan.

  • ·      1909: The number of administrative districts is reduced to 12 cho.

  • ·      1910: Land survey of entire island finds 43% of farmers are tenants, 24% are owner-tenants. Foot-binding is outlawed, erasing the last distinction between plains aborigines and Han.

  • ·      1911: The Mountain Aborigine Quarantine is lifted as soldiers are sent into the mountains to subjugate the aborigines and claim the forest-lands for harvesting timber and camphor.

  • ·      1912: Japanese Meiji era ends and Taisho period begins. Republic of China established by Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing following his “3 Principles of the People” (Sanmin Zhuyi) ideology. The 3 Principles call for a slow democratization of China following a period of “government tutelage” to remove feudal thinking within the populace.

  • ·      1913: Lo Fu-hsing uprising takes place in Hsinchu after a Hakka, inspired by Sun Yat-sen, leads a group of Taiwanese against Japanese authority.

  • ·      1914: Itagaki Taisuke launches the Dokakai cultural assimilation movement to turn Taiwanese into loyal Japanese subjects.

  • ·      1915: Major aboriginal revolts end after years of Japanese bombardment, quarantine and poison gas attacks. Dokakai movement is suspended by Governor General Sakuma. May 1, Governor General Sakuma is recalled for the brutal retribution on innocent Taiwanese following an incident in which 51 Japanese policemen were killed by a mob. The Forestry Bureau is established to improve forest management of Taiwan’s wilderness.

  • ·      1918: The Taiwan Bank opens in China.

  • ·      1919: Den Kenjiro becomes the first civilian governor-general.

  • ·      1920: In March, the New People’s Society is established by Taiwanese students in Tokyo to focus on Formosan issues.

  • ·      1921: March 21, Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi and his cabinet pass Law No. 3 to syncronize laws on Taiwan to those of Japan, reducing the Taiwan Governor’s powers. The Taiwan Cultural Association, an anti-government organization of elites is formed to promote rights of native Taiwanese.

  • ·      1922: 2,400 Taiwanese students are studying in Japan.

  • ·      1923: League for the Establishment of a Taiwan Parliament is formed to lead the home rule movement.

  • ·      1924: Japanese Code of Criminal Procedure is enacted in Taiwan.

  • ·      1927: The Taiwan Masses Party becomes the first and only political party of the Japanese era.

  • ·      1928: Taiwan Communist Party is formed, advocating independence under the name of the Republic of Taiwan.

  • ·      1929: The Taiwan Governor-General’s Office is placed under the Ministry of Colonial Affairs to help centralize Japanese colonial development. Law 63 is rescinded, further stripping the governorship of powers and bringing Taiwan firmly under central government control.

  • ·      1930: October 27, Musha Incident: 134 Japanese killed in central Musha (Wushe) township by mountain aborigines led by Atayal chief Rudao Bai after a scuffle with the local Japanese constable. Japanese quickly retaliate by dropping poison gas on the lightly-armed Atayal, killing hundreds. The League of Nations discovers Japan’s use of Taiwan for drug profits.

  • ·      1931: The Republic of China establishes Mandarin as the “National Language” (guoyu) of China.

  • ·      1933: The Taiwanese Masses Party is banned.

  • ·      1934: Taiwanese Home Rule League is dissolved.

  • ·      1935: April 21 Taichung and Hsinchu Earthquakes kill 15,000 people. Provincial and city governments are given local representation. 68,000 Taiwanese are working in the industrial sector in 7,000 factories. The Japanese begin allowing elections for local assemblies and half the seats in the provincial assembly.

  • ·      1936: Kobayashi Seizo becomes the 17th Governor-General of Taiwan and commits the Taiwanese people to his policies of Assimilation, Expansion of Military Industrial Projects in preparation for using Taiwan as a launch pad into southern Asia.

  • ·      1937: April, the Kominka policy of assimilation is introduced and promoted through a series of nationalizing campaigns. Chinese language is excluded from the educational system. Taiwan Federation of Local Autonomy is pressured to “voluntarily” disband. Sino-Japanese war breaks out in Manchuria at the Marco Polo Bridge. The Sun Moon Lake reservoir and hydroelectric works is completed, providing electricity to Taiwan’s heavy industry.

  • ·      1938: National General Mobilization Law is passed by the Japanese Diet to conscript 200,000 Taiwanese to work in military-related industries.

  • ·      1940: Literacy rate is 27%. Japanese government claims 51% of Taiwanese can speak Japanese. The Public Service Association of the Imperial Subjects is installed to promote loyalty during wartime. In November, Admiral Hasegawa becomes Governor-General of Taiwan.

  • ·      1942: 7,000 Taiwanese students are studying in Japan.

  • ·      1943: 143,000 Taiwanese are employed as industrial workers in Taiwan.

  • ·      1944: Major U.S. air bombardment of Taiwan begins. Some 25% of school-aged children are enrolled in primary school.

  • ·      1945: March, Japanese Diet allows Taiwanese colonial representatives in the Lower House of the Diet. April, compulsory general conscription into the Japanese armed forces is enacted. June 17, the hoko system is abolished. August 15, Emperor Hirohito issues the proclamation of Japanese surrender to the Allied powers. August 17, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers General Order No.1 section a.) states: “The senior Japanese commanders and all ground, sea, air and auxiliary forces within China (excluding Manchuria), Formosa and French Indo-China north of 16 north latitude shall surrender to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek” and allows the R.O.C. to occupy Taiwan. August, Kuomintang party of China creates the Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office under the direction of Fujian Governor Chen Yi to govern Taiwan. The TPAEO also doubled as the Taiwan Garrison Command. December, Kuomintang divide Taiwan into eight counties. 7% of Taiwanese have adopted Japanese names. October 25, Governor-General Ando signs documents allowing Nationalist Chinese forces under the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers allowing Chen Yi to effectively assume command. Gu Zhenfu, a young man from a powerful land owning family, organizes the August 15th Independence Movement to declare Taiwan an independent nation. The August 15th Movement is put down by Japanese officials. October 17, 3000 Nationalist soldiers arrive by sea.

  • ·      1946: Cholera epidemic followed by malaria, bubonic plague and leprosy hits Taiwan for first time since 1919. KMT sends 28,000 officials to Taiwan and 36,000 Taiwanese lose their jobs in the civil service. KMT calls for “re-education” of Taiwanese. July 30, Committee on Land Rents is established in every village to survey land for future reform. December 25, The ROC Constitution is ratified in Nanjing without Taiwanese representation.

  • ·      1947: January 6, General George Marshall abandons his effort to mediate the Chinese Civil War. February 14, Taiwan’s rice market closes following riots over inflation. The price of food rises 700 percent. January, KMT announces conscription of Taiwanese youth to fight the Communists in China. February 28, a female cigarette peddler is beaten by Monopoly Agents, sparking riots that would lead to a massacre of innocent Taiwanese by government troops. March 2, local elites approach Governor Chen Yi with a petition of “temporary demands,” which among other things allow student police to help restore order in the cities, release emergency food supplies, and allow for future dialogue with the governor. March 7, a list if 32 demands is presented to Chen Yi asking for a reconstruction of KMT authority on the island, civilian control of the police rather than military control, and for elections to be held. March 9, KMT troops land in Keelung and immediately engage in warfare against the civilian population. March 13, Nationalists gain control of Taiwan and embark on a campaign to “exterminate the traitors”. April 22, the Nationalist government announces that Taiwan will have a regular provincial government under Chen Yi’s replacement Wei Tao-ming. Taiwan Sugar Company is established to monopolize Taiwan’s sugar reserves. ROC Constitution is amended. December 3, Garrison Command reports violence resulting from land reform.

  • ·      1948: Land reform movement is introduced to minimize the "communist threat" in the countryside.

  • ·      1949: April 6, Students at National Taiwan University are arrested and over 100 are killed when police crack down on protesters. May 19, Martial Law is declared, suspending rights guaranteed under the ROC Constitution and expanding the power of Garrison Command on Taiwan. The “Temporary Articles” were enacted “During the Period of Mobilization and Combating Rebellion” The permanent state of rebellion stymied political growth and opened a period of government-sponsored terror. The “Temporary Articles” froze the National Assembly of 1947 to maintain legitimacy as the government of China, leading to decades of policy voted on by aging cadres. Vigilance Measures law is enacted on executive order to consolidate government in the executive. In October, the People’s Republic of China is established in Beijing. In December, the ROC government is moved from Nanjing, China to Taiwan. Land reform under the Nationalists is instituted to end tenancy and high rates of tenant insecurity.

  • ·      1950: January, US President Truman declares the United States will not supply the ROC with aid nor intervene in the Chinese civil war. May 23, KMT government announces investigation of 228 Massacre. June, Korean War breaks out, leading the US to support Chiang Kai-shek against the Chinese Communists, while pacifying him from offensive movement against Communist China. June 27, US President Truman declares Taiwan an American security interest. June 29, Chiang Kai-shek offers 30,000 troops to assist in Korea. July 31, Douglas MacArthur flies to Taipei with a promise of American support. August 5, Chiang Kai-shek launches KMT Party reorganization plan. Reorganization of Local Government Plan is completed, dividing Taiwan into smaller localities and Hsien (counties).

  • ·      1951: September 8, The Treaty of Peace With Japan (The San Francisco Treaty) is signed by Japan and the allies, officially ending WWII. Article 2 Part b. of the treaty states: Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores. China is not represented at the signing. The San Francisco Treaty  December, first island-wide election held for the provincial assembly. Land reform sells land to tenant farmers for 2.5 times the value of a year’s crop.

  • ·      1952:April 28, The Treaty of Peace enters effect.

  • ·      1953: Land to the Tiller program begins. Military Serviceman’s Insurance law is passed. Chiang Kai Sheck announces the first of his cultural policies, stressing Chinese nationalism in education and state endorsed physical fitness.

  • ·      1954: December 2, U.S.-R.O.C. Mutual Defense Treaty is signed to promising U.S. aid to ensure a Pacific front against Communism. Kao Yu-shu becomes the first elected Mayor of Taipei. 500,000 refugee ROC soldiers have retired.

  • ·      1955: February: Last evacuation of soldiers from China. Between 1949 and 1955 90,000 “Communist Elements” have been arrested in Taiwan. Eisenhower issues his “Offshore Islands Resolution” to stabilize the Taiwan Strait. September, Taiwanese dissident leader Thomas Liao establishes the Provisional Government of Taiwan in Japan. KMT General and WWII hero of the Burma campaign Sun Li-jen is arrested for “harboring Communists” and sentenced to house arrest in Taichung.

  • ·      1958: Battle of Kinmen erupts with non-stop artillery bombardment from both sides.

  • ·      1960: Kao Yu-shu fails in his bid to establish the China Democratic Party. September 4, magazine publisher Lei Chen receives a 10-year sentence for his role in establishing the China Democratic Party.

  • ·      1961: Urban population of Taiwan reaches 5 million.

  • ·      1962: May 1, Legislative Yuan unanimously passes a special 14 month defense tax in a secret session to raise more money to counterattack China.

  • ·      1963: Isadore Dyen proposes Austronesian Homeland Theory. 80% of the national budget is slated for defense, or 15% of GNP.

  • ·      1964: The Taipei to Keelung “MacArthur” Freeway opens to the public. September 20, Dr. Peng Min-ming and two of his graduate students are arrested for attempting to disseminate a declaration of Taiwanese rights.

  • ·      1965: Industry replaces agriculture as Taiwan’s chief economic feature. Dr. Peng Min-ming is indicted for attempting to publish a manifesto of Taiwanese rights. April 2, Dr. Peng is sentenced to 8 years in prison. August, two of the ROC’s largest ships are sunk in a naval engagement with PRC boats. 3% of employed people are recipients of higher education. Taiwan ceases to receive US economic aid for the first time since 1950 having received more aid per capita than any other country.

  • ·      1966: 3.75 million of Taiwan’s 7.8 million urban residents over 12 years of age are employed. March, Chiang Kai-shek orders the Temporary Articles for Mobilization During the Communist Rebellion amended to reorganize the national government and allow for elections to fill the vacancies left by deceased members of the National Assembly. Native Taiwanese make up a total of 38 members of the National Assembly, Legislative Yuan and Control Yuan.

  • ·      1967: November 11: Taipei becomes a “Special Municipality” to allow greater government control of the temporary capital of the ROC. 

  • ·      1968: Compulsory education is extended from six to nine years. The Red Leaf Baseball defeats the world champion Japanese squad 7-0.

  • ·      1969: Compulsory education through the ninth grade is made law. National Assembly elections are held to give Taiwanese more representation, adding 15 seats.

  • ·      1970: January, the World United for Formosan Independence (WUFI) is formed. April 24, Chiang Kai-shek’s son Chiang Ching-kuo is the target of an assassination attempt while visiting New York. The provincial capital of “Taiwan Province” is moved to Hsin Tsun in central Taiwan to create the illusion of Taiwan as a province of China.

  • ·      1971: The Republic of China is replaced by the People’s Republic of China at the United Nations as the sole representative of China. 0.1% of Taiwanese companies are government owned, employ 9% of Taiwan’s workforce, produce 24% of Taiwan’s value added, held 52% of Taiwan’s assets in operations. Asparagus and mushroom crops earn $82 million in foreign exchange.

  • ·      1972: February 28, US and PRC issue the Shanghai Communiqué acknowledging China’s position on Taiwan and opening dialogue for future diplomatic relations between the two countries. Japan switches recognition from the ROC to the PRC. U.S. president Richard Nixon makes first trip to China.

  • ·      1973: Census shows Taipei is 1/3 “mainlander”. Children’s Welfare Law is enacted to protect children from abuse.

  • ·      1974: Island-wide recession forces factories to close.

  • ·      1975: April 5, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek dies in Taiwan.

  • ·      1977: November, “The Chung Li Incident” erupts after KMT is accused of manipulating votes against independent Hakka county magistrate candidate Hsu Hsin-liang representing the first serious challenge to the KMT authorities. The Tang Wai movement is inaugurated as former KMT politicians support each other against the KMT.

  • ·      1978: March, Chiang Ching-kuo is elected president by the National Assembly. North-South Freeway is completed. December 15, US President Carter announces the US policy of recognizing the PRC as the sole government of China. December, first competitive national election is cancelled following news of US plan to break diplomatic ties with the ROC.

  • ·      1979: Kaohsiung is elevated to “Special Municipality” status. April 10, the US Congress passes the Taiwan Relations Act. December 10: Kaohsiung Incident sees police crack down on pro-democracy activists following the forced closure of the pro-democracy “Formosa (Meilidao) Magazine”. December 31, the US severs diplomatic ties with Taiwan.

  • ·      1980: February 28, Meilidao leader Lin Yi Hsiung’s mother and twin 7 year old daughters are stabbed to death, and an older daughter is critically wounded on the anniversary of the 228 Massacre while Lin awaits trial for his involvement in the “Kaohsiung Incident” two months earlier.

  • ·      1981: The massive Ching Kai-shek Memorial Hall is completed after six years of planning and construction. July, Chen En-chen, a visiting professor and independence activist is found dead on the National Taiwan University campus.

  • ·      1982: August 17, The United States and People’s Republic of China agree on the 8/17 Communiqué in which the U.S. agrees to reduce arms sales to Taiwan. To placate the ROC government, the US then pledges, among other things, not to put a timetable on the end of arms sales to Taiwan.

  • ·      1984: Chiang Ching-kuo is elected again by the National Assembly. December, Alliance of Taiwan Aborigines is formed, marking the beginning of the Taiwanese Aboriginal movement. October 14, San Francisco writer, Henry Liu, is murdered by members of the Bamboo Union Gang under direct orders from the Internal Security Bureau for writing a critical book on Taiwan’s President Chiang Ching Kuo.

  • ·      1985: 17% of employed persons are in agriculture. 8.4% of the population over 6 years of age is illiterate.

  • ·      1986: Chiang Ching-kuo appoints a twelve-member committee to discuss ending martial law. September 26, The Democratic Progressive Party is founded by leaders of the Kaohsiung Incident and the Tangwai (outside the KMT) movement.

  • ·      1987: Period Martial Law is lifted. EPA reveals 15% of Taiwan’s farmland is contaminated with heavy metals. Travel to China is permitted. The Council of labor Affairs is established.

  • ·      1988: January 13, Chiang Ching-kuo dies in office. January, Lee Teng-hui succeeds him as the president of Taiwan. Lee is the first-ever native Taiwanese to hold that post. People’s Republic of China enacts the Encouragement of Investment by Taiwanese Compatriots policy to court Taiwanese business. 14.7% of Taiwanese have received a higher education. May 20, Farmers rally turns violent inaugurating a period of street protests that would define the immediate martial law period.

  • ·      1989: January, New political parties become legal. “Snails Without Shells” campaign lobbies for affordable housing. December, DPP takes 30% of the vote for county and city leadership posts. Taiwan’s GNP is USD $7,509.

  • ·      1990: March, Lee Teng-hui is elected to a six-year term. Agriculture accounts for 4% of net domestic product.

  • ·      1991: Period of National Mobilization for the suppression of Communist Rebellion is lifted. President Lee Teng-hui launches investigation into the 228 Massacre. Six Year Development Plan is initiated to elevate Taiwan to within the top 20 nations by per capita income. National Assembly members are elected to a four-year term. September, Democratic Progressive Party violates law by promoting independence for Taiwan.

  • ·      1992: February 28, President Lee Teng-hui presides over first state commemoration of the 228 Massacre. May, National Assembly adds eight more amendments to ROC Constitution to provide for the election of the National Assembly every four years, the direct election of the president every four years, appointment of Control Yuan members, equal rights for women, the handicapped, and aborigines. May 15, the notoriously vague “Sedition Law” is reformed. Taiwanese per annum income exceeded $10,000.

  • ·      1993: Lee Teng-hui appoints Lien Chan as the ROC’s 14th Premier. Northern Freeway is completed. April, Taiwan and China hold the Koo-Wang talks in Singapore regarding normalizing relations. It is the first official meeting between the two sides since 1949. Sunshine Bill is passed to shed light on lawmakers’ income. New Party is formed by disaffected KMT members opposed to Lee Teng-hui’s policies aimed at localizing the KMT.

  • ·      1994: March 31, twenty-four Taiwanese tourists are robbed and murdered in the Thousand Island Lake Incident in which the People’s Liberation Army was heavily involved. ROC Constitution is again amended, providing for the direct election of the president. April, Lee Teng-hui uses the term “Yuan Zhu Min” (Aboriginal people, as opposed to the derogatory term shandi ren, or “mountain people”) for the first time in a government speech. The term is used in a later amendment to the constitution to protect aboriginal rights. July 18: amendments are reduced to ten allowing for direct election of the president and vice president to begin in 1996 and defining the appointment of the Premier. September 8, the Examination Yuan excludes Sun Yat-sen’s “3 Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi) ideological questions from its superior and ordinary examinations. December, Examination Yuan moves to abolish the 3 Principles from all government examinations. December, Chen Shui-bian, a former lawyer who defended the Kaohsiung Incident leaders is elected Mayor of Taipei in a three way race. February 15, Chen Shui-bian issues order to have all pictures of Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-kuo removed from all city buildings.

  • ·      1995: January 10, Taipei Association of the Film Industry suspends playing the ROC National Anthem before movie showings. June, the United States allows President Lee Teng-hui to travel freely as a private citizen to visit his alma mater, Cornell University. August, Lee Teng-hui uses the term “New Taiwanese” to address those people living in Taiwan who were born in China. Lee’s remarks are an attempt to mediate the ethnic and cultural discontent that had existed on Taiwan since 1945. Chinese President Jiang Zemin issues a proposal for unification based on an Eight-Point model.

  • ·      1996: March 23, first national election is held. Lee Teng-hui wins with 54%, DPP canditate Peng Min-ming (21%). Election is marred by Chinese missile tests off Keelung in the north and Kaohsiung in the south, which prompts US to send two aircraft carrier groups to the Taiwan Strait. China, unable to track the carriers’ movements, quietly backs down. Lien Chan is elected Vice President and serves concurrently as premiere until 1997, when he is succeeded by Vincent Siew. April, students gather at 228 Peace Park in Taipei to protest the politicization of China-centric history books in the school system.

  • ·      1997: June 24, the first Taiwan-centered curriculum is unveiled for schools and accepted by the Ministry of Education. Eleven articles are added to the constitution to redefine the branches of government in light of Taiwan’s multi-party democracy and all but eliminating the provincial government to reduce corruption and vote buying. July, Hong Kong reverts to Chinese rule under the One Country Two Systems formula, which would be the cornerstone of all future unification propositions set forth by China.

  • ·      1998: December, Chen Shuibian loses Taipei Mayorship to KMT newcomer Ma Ying-jeou, KMT also performs well in legislative elections.

  • ·      1999: February, Council of Grand Justices rules that the wording “Republic of China” was not necessary in the names of organizations registered with the Ministry of the Interior. March 2, government announces updated banknotes that do not exemplify Chiang Kai-shek or Sun Yat-sen. The notes were to be printed by the Central Bank as opposed to the Bank of Taiwan, which had been customary in the past to present the former notes as being merely provincial. May 19, Lee Teng-hui declares a concept considering Taiwanese as a radically different ethnic group from Chinese. July, Lee Teng-hui announces a “Special State to State Relationship” between Taiwan and China. September 21, 7.6 earthquake in Nantou kills 2,400, injuring 25,000 leaving 100,000 homeless and severely damaging the Cross-Island Highway.

  • ·      2000: Taiwan experiences a severe recession. March, Chen Shui-bian is elected ROC president becoming the first non-KMT, native Taiwanese president in Taiwan’s history. Lee Teng-hui is pressured into resigning from the KMT in wake of Vice President Lien Chan’s devastating electoral defeat in the presidential election. Agriculture accounts for 2.1% of economy. June 30: a national poll by Taiwan’s Mainland Affairs Council finds that 51.4% of Taiwan’s citizens consider themselves “Taiwanese” while 40.1% consider themselves both “Taiwanese and Chinese”.

  • ·      2001: August, Economic Development Advisory Board recommends changes to battle Asian economic crisis. 2.3 million Taiwanese visit China. December, DPP unseats the KMT as the largest single party in the Legislative Yuan for the first time. A United Daily News poll finds 52% of the population describe themselves as “Taiwanese” only.

  • ·      2002: August 4: President Chen Shui-bian describes the Taiwan-China relationship as “Two Countries on Either Side of the Strait” (Yibian Yiguo), and advocated the enactment of a national referendum law. According to a DPP poll, over 64% of Taiwanese agreed with Chen’s description of the relationship with China while 56.5% rejected China’s “One Country Two Systems” formula. Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou of the KMT handily wins re-election while DPP incumbent Frank Chang-ting Hsieh retains the mayorship of Kaohsiung. Taiwan joins the World Trade Organization. Penetration rate of cellular phones exceeds 100%.

  • ·      2003: February: KMT and its splinter, the People First Party (PFP) form a joint ticket with Lien Chan and James Soong running for President and Vice President. April: SARS outbreak infects at least 347 and kills 37. China claims to be taking care of Taiwan’s medical needs during the crisis. Sept. 1: ROC passports now feature the Romanized word “Taiwan” on the cover. September-October: Huge rallies supporting ex-president Lee Teng-hui’s call to “rectify Taiwan’s name” attract hundreds of thousands in Taipei and Kaohsiung. Oct. 24: Madam Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mei-ling) passes away in New York at age of 104, marking the end of the Chiang era in Taiwan. Nov. 27: Bowing to public pressure, Pan Blue-controlled legislature passes a National Referendum Law, which includes a clause allowing a “defensive referendum” if Taiwan is threatened by China.

  • ·      2004: February 28: Over 1 million Taiwanese join hands and form a chain stretching along the entire length of Taiwan to protest the deployment of 600+ Chinese missiles pointed at Taiwan. March 19: President Chen Shui-bian and Vice President Annette Lu are slightly injured by unknown shooter(s) while campaigning in Tainan. Chen is re-elected by a razor-thin margin of 0.22% the next day. March 21: Lien Chan calls election “unfair” citing purported nationwide voting irregularities. Pan-Blue politicians and supporters hold large rallies drawing tens of thousands in Taipei, calling for a recount and an investigation into Chen’s shooting, which they accuse Chen of staging to win sympathy votes. March 26: Scattered violence breaks out around Taiwan as Pan-Blue supporters riot over the official posting of the election results. March 27: 500,000 protesters mass in front of the Presidential Office. March 28: Further violence breaks out as 1,000 police forcibly remove 200 illegal protestors after they refuse to leave the front of the Presidential Office. Pan Blue groups file suits that demand a recount, and to overturn the election results. Both are rejected the high court due to a lack of evidence. December: Pan Greens perform unexpectedly poor in legislative elections, allowing Pan blues to retain majority in Legislative Yuan. China announces its plan to draft an “anti-secession law” that would sanction violence against Taiwan should it declare independence.
Much more has happened since, but I haven't really had the willpower to add anymore.